Schachter, Stanley, The Psychology of Affiliation: Experimental Studies of the Sources of Gregariousness , Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1959. It will probably prove rewarding if the room and the interrogator look exceptionally neat. 31. The aim of the Alice in Wonderland or confusion technique is to confound the expectations and conditioned reactions of the interrogatee. The conditional response theory holds that the subject reacts to questions that strike sensitive areas, regardless of whether he is telling the truth or not. Above all, the interrogator must remember that finding some of the characteristics of the group in a single source does not warrant an immediate conclusion that the source "belongs to" the group, and that even correct labelling is not the equivalent of understanding people but merely an aid to understanding. [approx. In his view, he is dealing with the important topic, the why . The intensely personal nature of the interrogation situation makes it all the more necessary that the KUBARK questioner should aim not for a personal triumph but for his true goal -- the acquisition of all needed information by any authorized means. At the first meeting with the interrogatee it is usually a good idea for the interrogator to spend some time in the same kind of quiet, friendly exchange that characterized the screening interview. Although it is often necessary to trick people into telling what we need to know, especially in CI interrogations, the initial question which the interrogator asks of himself should be, "How can I make him want to tell me what he knows?" can produce irreversible psychological damage. U.S. Army, Counterintelligence Corps, Fort Holabird, Investigative Subjects Department, Interrogations, Restricted, 1 May 1950. One often sees the most damaging documentary evidence, in the forms of letters or affidavits, fall absolutely flat as betrayers of falsehood, merely because of the unskillful way in which they are handled. I know I will not be tortured and that under the procedures of western law I can conduct myself boldly." There is some evidence that graphology is a useful aid in the early detection of cancer and of certain mental illnesses. The evidence is that the rise will generally be greater when (the subject) is lying." Its purpose is to keep from the questioner any guilty information or information that would be damaging to the speaker's self-esteem. Gottschalk says, "The judicious choice of a drug with minimal side effects, its matching to the subject's personality, careful gauging of dosage, and a sense of timing... [make] silent administration a hard-to-equal ally for the hypnotist intent on producing self-fulfilling and inescapable suggestions... the drug effects should prove... compelling to the subject since the perceived sensations originate entirely within himself." It places them, and KUBARK, in unconside red jeopardy. The interrogator can abet the process by making occasional notes -- or pretending to do so -- on items that seem important to the interrogatee but are not of intelligence value. Interrogation sessions with a resistant source who is under detention should not be held on an unvarying schedule. The interrogator who already knows part of the story explains to the source that the purpose of the questioning is not to gain information; the interrogator knows everything already. The capacity for resistance is diminished by disorientation. Oatis, William N. "Why I Confessed," Life , 21 September 1953, Vol. Any link to a group or country will be undependable and, as a rule, transitory. These findings suggest - but by no means prove - the following theories about solitary confinement and isolation: The threat of coercion usually weakens or destroys resistance more effectively than coercion itself. The profound moral objection to applying duress past the point of irreversible psychological damage has been stated. The fourth is ideological resistance. c. Determination of repatriate's kind and level of access while outside his own country. Persons with intense guilt feelings may cease resistance and cooperate if punished in some way, because of the gratification induced by punishment. The assessment of individuals is based upon the compilation and use of psychological as well as biographic detail.

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