The initial earthquake had a devastating effect on residential suburbs affected by liquefaction and lateral spread. There are a variety geologic features that we can use. Material on this page is offered under a How each household prepares for an earthquake varies; however, many homes are stocked with earthquake survival kits. As stated above, New Zealand is situated on one of the edges of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Earthquake survival kits. When we returned to New Zealand over a decade later in 2018, we were curious to see how the city had changed. In fact, scientists did not even know there was a geologic fault there until the September 2010 earthquake. Earthquake monitoring in New Zealand is undertaken by GNS Science’s GeoNet Project which provides a broad-based, around-the-clock monitoring system and a modern data management centre.. Why do we monitor earthquakes? Afternoons were the worst. The team study how earthquakes have interacted in the past to forecast what is likely to happen in the future, while also considering the unique geology and tectonic processes specific to New Zealand. Earthquakes will cost New Zealand close to $50 billion in both public and private sector costs this decade, of which the Government’s share is about $20 billion - $18 billion for Christchurch and $2 billion for Kaikoura. This is because it sits plum on the Pacific Ring of Fire – unsurprisingly a volatile area. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place. Earthquakes of this size typically result from fault ruptures about five to seven kilometres long, with up to about a meter of seismic slip. Brendon has been in Christchurch for the past decade and he says his ‘professional career has been shaped by the earthquakes”, from the 2010 Darfield and 2011 Christchurch quakes to the 2016 Kaikōura quake. The most frequent preparations were getting basic needs and equipment, but the greatest increase after the earthquake was in actions to mitigate damage. The type of faulting and resultant shaking pattern was similar in some ways to the magnitude 5.8 and 5.9 earthquakes to hit Christchurch on December 23, 2011. for noncommercial purposes as long as attribution to the original For an understanding of how much difference the location of an earthquake makes, let’s take another look at the 2011 Christchurch quake and the more recent Kaikoura quake in 2016. As an earthquake engineer the quakes provided opportunities close to home to study the mechanisms and aftermath of large earthquakes. Christchurch rents went up on average $130 per week or $6,500 a year, between 2011 and 2014.This rent increase amounted to nearly 10% of median household income in the region. ... 9 earthquakes to hit Christchurch on December 23, 2011. All in all, lessons have certainly be learned. This therefore provides essential opportunities for learning from practice and preparing for the future. Op-Ed Coping with Disaster and Preparing for the Future: An On-the-Ground View of Japan’s Earthquake Recovery Effort Ry Beville Tuesday, September 13, 2011 Experts predict earthquakes will continue to hit New Zealand’s second city for the next four years. Finally, at a whole different scale, we saw the quake and resulting tsunami ravage Japan in March, not to mention the 2010 earthquakes that leveled parts of China and Haiti. Every year there are 15,000 of the things rattling around in the basement of the earth under NZ – with about 150 of them being felt (that’s one every three days). We asked Chief Executive Officer of Development Christchurch Limited (DCL) Rob Hall FRICS how the city is regenerating after the earthquakes in 2010 and 2011. We visited Christchurch in 2007 as part of a three week trip around New Zealand and it was one of the most memorable parts of our trip. So, yes, with New Zealand sitting astride the Pacific Ring of Fire like a cat on a hot tin roof there’s going to be movement. This area is notorious for a constant – and we mean ceaseless – stream of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and seismic shifting. This is really important, as buildings collapsing kills the most people in an earthquake – along with tsunamis. Photograph: David Wethey/EPA These were the seeds of what Smith hoped would become more of a … The main thing we do is look for evidence of active faulting. This shaking was significantly greater than the levels Christchurch's structures had been designed to withstand. In Christchurch today, a white powdery compound, a cathedral made of cardboard and a hangar-like laboratory where earthquakes are created are all part of … InTeGrate materials for your classroom. Saying that, losing anyone is horrible, but the average lives lost per year for New Zealand’s history is only three. ... enough to generate magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes. This has been done by the NZ government, and is obviously a pragmatic step. The most likely places in the whole of New Zealand to experience extremely powerful quakes are Kaikoura, Hokitika, Hanmer Springs, Masterton and Arthur’s Pass. Within New Zealand, the September 2010 earthquake and its aftershocks are thus also known as the Canterbury earthquakes. material on the InTeGrate site is retained. Christchurch, New Zealand, was rocked by similarly destructive quakes and countless aftershocks in June. Another thing the government is doing, and something that is much harder to implement, is to make sure that all older buildings adhere to the same requirements. After the Christchurch earthquake in 2011 the idea that earthquakes could be as lethal as that one turned out to be was really impressed on New Zealanders. The epicenter of the quake was approximately 3 miles from the city center of Christchurch. A University of Canterbury child health researcher is studying the impact of the earthquakes and their aftermath on some of Christchurch’s smallest and most vulnerable residents. When you compare the two quakes, however, whereas 1 in 100 people died in Napier only 1 in 2000 died in Christchurch, and this is thanks solely to the advancements in earthquake-proof architecture. Read on to find out how. To reiterate that point again, it’s New Zealand’s lack of population that makes its earthquakes less deadly than they might normally be. The quake-damaged Christ Church Cathedral will be stabilised to protect it from future earthquakes, before work is done to restore the heritage building. Third, liquefaction was much more extensive than in the September 2010 earthquake, with the shaking turning water-saturated layers of sand and silt beneath the surface into sludge, burying properties and streets in thick layers of silt, and wrecking the foundations of homes. Christchurch's Catholic cathedral damaged after the earthquake, in 2011. Brendon has been in Christchurch for the past decade and he says his ‘professional career has been shaped by the earthquakes”, from the 2010 Darfield and 2011 Christchurch quakes to the 2016 Kaikōura quake. One in ten residents is preparing to leave as it becomes increasingly difficult to rebuild. The type of faulting and resultant shaking pattern was similar in some ways to the magnitude 5.8 and 5.9 earthquakes to hit Christchurch on December 23, 2011. That was typically when the outbursts of crying, hitting or other violence would erupt in Christchurch classrooms and playgrounds. Rod continued with the learnings from this work and has developed, with engineering and planning colleagues, a process of anticipating planning needs and how our society could plan properly for future needs. New Zealand was once dubbed The Shaky Isles due to it being one of the most seismically active countries in the world. It is fighting the challenges like climate change by making the city a test bed for technological innovation. This is basically a massive area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean, which stretches around in a 40,000 km horseshoe. ... earthquakes. As terrible as that is, it pales when set against the 230,000 lives that were lost in the Indonesian Boxing Day tsunami. Research has shown there have been about eight major seismic events, potentially subduction earthquakes, along the Hikurangi stretch over the past 7000 years — … This is one of the briefs for the Cities for our Future Challenge, which if part of our 150th anniversary celebrations. Christchurch was understandably unprepared for activity on a fault that was previously unidentified. It seems to be an inconsistency that a country that suffers from such a chronic bout of earthquakes should be relatively unscathed when it comes to fatalities. Earthquakes of this size typically result from fault ruptures about five to seven kilometres long, with up to about a meter of seismic slip. These are primarily aftershocks of the 6.3 earthquake on the 22nd of February 2011. In considering the earthquake hazard in Christchurch it is useful to apply the law of precedence: the past is the best indicator of the future. However, prior to the two seismic events in September 2010 and February 2011, Canterbury Plains likely had not experienced a major earthquake in thousands of years. Since then, Christchurch has been preparing itself against future earthquakes and forging ahead to transform the place into a smart city that is built around resiliency. The aftermath of the Christchurch earthquake, photo via nhne-pulse.org We encourage the reuse and dissemination of the material on this site This earthquake was very similar to the one in Christchurch. The resulting deaths numbered 185 on that particular day – 60 less than the national record. Finally, the timing of the earthquake contributed to the damage and the number of casualties: the February 2011 quake happened at 12:51pm, in the middle of a busy weekday, with correspondingly more lethal consequences. As this small island nation picks up the pieces from the 6.3-magnitude earthquake that walloped its second-largest city, Christchurch, leaving scores dead … Time-lapse visualisation of today's earthquakes in Christchurch and Canterbury, New Zealand. Christchurch was understandably unprepared for activity on a fault that was previously unidentified. All in all, this decade the bill for all the earthquake damage in the country will be roughly $50 billion NZD. After the Christchurch earthquake in 2011 the idea that earthquakes could be as lethal as that one turned out to be was really impressed on New Zealanders. There are only 4.6 million people in total, and just over one million of them are in Auckland – an area that isn’t too badly affected by earthquakes in general. Disclaimer: Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this website are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The whole country was taken aback by the destructive power of that particular quake, even … Additional factors exacerbated the damage of the February 2011 earthquake. Another reason that casualties are fairly low is due to the lack of enormous buildings that suffer damage and then fall down – subsequently crushing people as they go down – and that is thanks to the fantastic improvement in building standards that have taken place in the country over the past century or so. For one, the proximity of the epicenter to the downtown area limited the amount of energy the quake dissipated before reaching Christchurch. Creative Commons license unless otherwise noted below. The magnitude 6.3 earthquake that struck Christchurch, New Zealand, in 2011 was a similar surprise; scientists didn’t even know there was a fault in the region until a much less damaging magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in September 2010. Power-wise the Christchurch quake was a 6.3 and had the power of about four Hiroshima atomic bombs. For example, between 1992 and 2007, New Zealand experienced over 30 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or more. The government also bailed out failed insurance companies that couldn’t afford to honour the numerous claims filed with them after the two big quakes. The first and easiest solution to moderate risks is to make sure that newly erected buildings adhere to newly passed, stringent earthquake-proofing guidelines. If it was populated as densely as England, for example, then the results of quakes would be statistically very different. Yet only two people were killed in the more recent quake purely because Kaikoura has so few people compared to Christchurch, which is the biggest city in the South Island. Outside of New Zealand, the earthquake became known as the "Christchurch Earthquake", and it resulted in the deaths of 185 people and injuries of several thousand. Preparations increased after the earthquakes, particularly in Christchurch. It’s called ENGAGE and I think it is an essential tool which those who are leading the Greater Christchurch 2050 should adopt as a process. Kaikoura’s quake was a 7.8, 180 times more powerful and had released the same amount of energy as 800 atomic bombs. It is obviously important to consider what this recent earthquake means for Christchurch’s seismic future. The cost of the Christchurch earthquake – as well as the more recent one in Kaikoura – will cost the New Zealand government about $20 billion NZD. As a result, the rock on either side of the fault accelerated almost three times as fast as in a typical quake, producing extra violent shaking. If you are indoors, you should drop, cover, and hold—drop to the ground, find cover under a table or other sturdy piece of … On February 22, 2011, residents of the then-second-largest city in New Zealand – Christchurch, located on the South Island's Canterbury Plains – were hit hard by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake. A few of them though, given to you in a nutshell are; the training of engineers and architects has undergone a revamp, buildings are assessed more regularly and more thoroughly than they were previously, and law changes that see damaged buildings much easily taken down, meaning that people can get on with rebuilding their homes and lives. Ear to the ground: Preparing for and recovering from earthquakes. Every year, thousands of earthquakes occur in New Zealand that are too small to be felt, although more serious quakes have occurred. The earthquake occurred more than five months after the September 4, 2010 earthquake of a 7.1 magnitude (in which no one died), and is considered to be an aftershock. There are numerous other strategies that have been proposed and put into action since the last two big earthquakes in New Zealand – too many to list and explain here. Additional factors exacerbated the damage of the February 2011 earthquake. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake was centered just outside this vibrant city on New Zealand's South Island causing mass devastation. Christchurch’s resilience journey. It has been five years since a major earthquake hit the New Zealand city of Christchurch, but thousands of residents are still waiting for their homes to be repaired or rebuilt, writes Michael Ertl. ... where future earthquakes are going to occur, how big they’re going to be, how damaging they might be and so on. The fact that New Zealand is sparsely populated is an obvious factor. Earthquake Preparedness in Christchurch, New Zealand, https://www.gns.cri.nz/Home/Learning/Science-Topics/Earthquakes, http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/news/2011/02/new-zealand-earthquakes-linked,-say-experts/, http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/historic-earthquakes/page-13, Teaching Sustainability in an Interdisciplinary First-Year Seminar, Strengthening Geoscience Competency for HBCU Pre-Service Teachers Workshop, Pan-African Approaches to Teaching Geoscience, Putting Sustainability into Action workshop, Teaching about Soils as a Critical Resource: Materials and Activities for your Classroom, Expanding the Impact of InTeGrate Projects, Program-Scale InTeGrate Materials for 2YCs, Coastal Hazards, Risk, and Environmental Justice, Broadening Access to the Earth and Environmental Sciences, Engineering, Sustainability, and the Geosciences, Teaching Environmental Justice: Interdisciplinary Approaches, Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce, Programs that Bring Together Geoscience and Sustainability, Systems, Society, Sustainability and the Geosciences, Adapting InTeGrate Modules for Biology Courses and Online Courses, Addressing Critical Issues in Your Community: Examples for Introductory Courses, Addressing Earthquake Hazards with Lidar, GPS, and InSAR in Upper-level Undergraduate Courses, Addressing Energy Sources and their Impact on the Environment, Addressing Landslide Hazards in Introductory Undergraduate Courses, Addressing Water Resources and Sustainability in Upper-level Undergraduate Courses, Assessing the Impact of InTeGrate Materials in Introductory Environmental Science and Botany Courses, Communicating Science to a Broad Audience: Social Media for You and Your Students, Connecting Earth Science and Sustainability to Teach the NGSS, Connecting Science to Issues of Justice in your Course, Context Diversity: A New Paradigm for Equity and Inclusion in Higher Education, Core Competencies for Sustainability Education Programs, Critical Zone Science: A transdisciplinary approach to environmental science, Designing Activities for Effective Online Teaching, Developing Graduate Students Teaching Capacity with InTeGrate Teaching Materials, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in the Earth and Environmental Sciences: Supporting the Success of All Students, Earth Education for a Sustainable Future: Supporting departments and programs through InTeGrate, Earth Education for Sustainable Societies, Engaging Environmental Justice in Geoscience Courses, Exploring ways to make the InTeGrate Mineral Resources module your own, Fostering Systems Thinking in Your Students, Helping your department or program to survive and thrive in the changing world of higher education, Improving Climate Literacy Through your Undergraduate Course, Incorporating Environmental Data-Driven Inquiry and Exploration in Your Course, Integrating Earth Literacy with Societal Issues, Integrating Energy, Earth and Environmental Education, Integrating GPS, SfM, and TLS into geoscience field courses, Integrating Hazards and Societal Impact into Your Course, Interdisciplinary Teaching and Sustainability, Interdisciplinary Teaching: Building Sustainability into your Non-Science Class, Introduction to InTeGrate: How to incorporate the classroom materials into your courses, Introductory Integrate-rich Physical Geology course, Lessons Learned from InTeGrate’s Materials Development Program and What Remains Undone, Moving sustainability forward through community partnerships, collaborative initiatives, and earth advocacy, Pathways to performance expectations using InTeGrate materials, Preparing Your Students for Environmental Careers, Students as Bridges between Disciplines and Across Campus for Sustainability, Supporting All Students Through Active Learning, Sustainable Solutions to Societal Issues AGU 2017, Sustainable solutions to societal issues: Teaching Earth literacy across the undergraduate curriculum, Sustaining Your Interdisciplinary Environmental and Sustainability Program: Opportunities and Resources, Teaching about the Critical Zone and the Changing Biosphere, Teaching Nanoscience in the Earth and Environmental Sciences, Teaching Sustainability and Environmental Justice in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Teaching the Impacts of Human Carbon Emissions on the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Economy, The Importance of Diversity and Equity in Supporting the Whole Student, Transforming Teacher Preparation to Teach for Sustainability, Understanding the Earth System and Key Societal Issues: High school teachers, Understanding the Earth System and Key Societal Issues: K-8 teachers, Using Data to Teach About Societally Important Questions, Using InTeGrate Materials in K-8 Teacher Preparation, Working with Diverse Students on Societally Relevant Geoscience Issues, Short URL: https://serc.carleton.edu/82144. 2010 earthquake and its aftershocks are thus also known as the Canterbury.. 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