The results and recommendations of this study came to be known as the 'Kerala model' of equitable growth which emphasised land reforms, poverty reduction, educational access and child welfare. We promise to deliver quality journalism that stays away from vested interest and political propaganda. will not conduct an exercise like NRC. Popular protest to hold public officials accountable is a vital part of life in Kerala. Criticisms. The India Human Development Report, 2011 prepared by Institute of Applied Manpower Research, placed Kerala on top of the index for achieving highest literacy rate, quality health services and consumption expenditure of people. The Kerala model of development refers to the practices adopted in the state of Kerala, India. By Gladwin Emmanuel Gladwin Emmanuel / … What was new compared to the times of equally high rainfall in the early part of the last century was the flooding due to inept dam management and the vulnerability of the terrain induced by the pattern of land use. As a subscriber, you are not only a beneficiary of our work but also its enabler. The statistic is composed from data on Life Expectancy, Education and per-capita GDP (as an indicator of Standard of living) collected at the national level using a formula. KERALA, MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTKERALA, MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT Modern Kerala formally emerged as a constituent state of the Indian Union on 1 November 1956, comprising three regions: Travancore, Cochin, and Malabar. The Government of Kerala instituted the Aided School system to help schools with operating expenses such as salaries for running these schools. Kerala had pioneered Universal health care through extensive public health services. Such investments and mass campaigns have created the transformation. His theory of four stages of cognitive development, first presented in the mid-20th century, is one of the most famous and widely-accepted theories in child cognitive development to this day. The foremost is the inability to meet the employment aspirations of the people, pushing them to live under authoritarian regimes overseas. They are a relatively recent phenomenon, pointing to the role of uncontrolled economic expansion. It is often also argued that the “Kerala model” would become unsustainable, given the mounting fiscal problems of the State. This prompted a continuing debate on the meaning of the Kerala ‘model’ of development for adivasis, in which a consensus seems to have risen that adivasis are the victims of Kerala's development experience and in which their current mobilisation is seen as the first time in history that their interests are being politically articulated. Since the late 1970s, a number of international development scholars have held up the south Indian state of Kerala as a “model of development” (cf. The Hindu. This development came about despite a low per capita income. [14][15], Political awareness among the common people including children is quite high,[citation needed] thanks to its history of Social Reformers like Sree Narayana Guru, Shree Chattambi Swamigal, Kuriakose Elias Chavara, Ayyankali etc., Leftist Movements and the unique political situation that exists in Kerala. It is characterized by achievements in social indicators such as education, healthcare, high life expectancy, low infant mortality and low birth rate, by the creation of productive social infrastructure rather than materialistic infrastructure. The Kerala model is markedly different from the conventional development thinking which focusses on achieving high GDP growth rates. Subscribe to Morning Filter & Evening Wrap newsletter. The extraordinary events that we have witnessed this year range from fountains sprouting out of the earth due to the hitherto unknown ‘water piping’ to constructed structures shifting, physical phenomena not yet widely understood. We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, our lives and livelihoods, during these difficult times. High levels of female education have not led to an equally high participation of women in the labour force or in governance, even though they participate equally in elections. It has helped us keep apace with events and happenings. The result was that a bank once considered Kerala’s own, doing the majority share of the banking business and offering support for development activities, thus became merely a regional office of the biggest bank in the country, with all its surplus savings from the State becoming part of SBI’s general pool of resources. 1. 28 Jun, 2013, 08.17 PM IST The land reform was implemented by the subsequent government, which had abolished tenancy, benefiting 1.5 million poor households. The success of Kerala in bringing about radical reductions in population growth rate, and Kerala’s principal political parties, irrespective of their ideologies, have responded to commercial interests over the welfare of ordinary people. [citation needed], By 1981, the general literacy rate in Kerala was 70 per cent – almost twice the all-India rate of 36 per cent. In the late 1970s Kerala ranked number one in 15 out of 21 Indian states with respect to selected infrastructural and basic services. Kerala has achieved material conditions of living, reflected in indicators of social development comparable to those of developed countries, even though t… ‘Pieces Of A Woman’ movie review: In pursuit of closure, India denies U.S. claim that its Digital Services Tax is ‘discriminatory’, ‘Maara’ movie review: A little too long, but a better adaptation of ‘Charlie’, Apple's latest AirPods Max has a condensation problem, ‘Bridgerton’ review: A sexy, frothy escapist romance from Netflix, New on Netflix this week: ‘Tribhanga’, ‘Lupin’, ‘Outside the Wire’ and more, ‘KGF: Chapter 2’ teaser: Rocky vs Adheera in a battle for the ages, Bitcoin crosses $40,000 mark, doubling in less than a month, Toxic! Under water: Chengannur in Alappuzha district of Kerala on August 19, 2018. In Section 4, we will focus on his model’s current theoretical and policy relevance. The “old” Kerala model, preoccupied with redistributive policies, failed, however, to induce economic development. Keywords: Kerala Model of Development, Health, Neo-liberalism, Privatization, Exclusion 1. You can support quality journalism by turning off ad blocker or purchase a subscription for unlimited access to The Hindu. Public policy has failed miserably to regulate land use including rampant quarrying, which destabilises the earth’s surface, with political patronage. His research areas include social movements and collective actions, politics and public emotions, development, civil society, social production of new urban spaces and political philosophy. Truth is that public policy is part of the problem. While countries such as Taiwan and Hungary have managed to get on the top 15 of the index, one possible reason cited for the poor show by India and China is their large population, with the care coverage reaching only a fraction of those in need. KERALA, MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT Modern Kerala formally emerged as a constituent state of the Indian Union on 1 November 1956, comprising three regions: Travancore, Cochin, and Malabar. In each town square, political parties maintain their icons – a statue of EMS or Indira Gandhi or a portrait of Marx, Engels, and Lenin in careful profile. | Photo Credit: In collaboration with Raj's close colleague, Indian economist Amartya Sen, he persuaded the UNDP to carry out work on Human Development Indicators (HDIs), which started playing a large role beside GDP in the framing of development policies. Also, Kerala had been the site of the notable Kerala School which pioneered principles of mathematics and logic, and cemented Kerala's status as a place of learning. "The State's community-operated care system is funded largely through local micro-donations of as little as Rs 10 (21 US cents) per month. The Linguistic Reorganization Committee, which recommended the reorganization of India's states based on the majority's common language, created modern Kerala as a … The rural literacy rate was almost identical, and female literacy, at 66 per cent, was not far behind. [citation needed], The prevalence of education was not only restricted to males. In fact many Ayurvedic Physicians (such as Itty Achudan) were from the backward Ezhava community. But its infant mortality rate is very low, its literacy rate among the highest on Earth, and its birthrate below America's and falling faster. Anthropologist Bill McKibben says "Though Kerala is mostly a land of paddy-covered plains, statistically Kerala stands out as the Mount Everest of social development; there's truly no place like it. UK topped the list followed by Australia and New Zealand. More precisely, the Kerala model has been defined as: The Centre for Development Studies at Thiruvananthapuram with the help of United Nations, conducted a case study of selected issues with reference to Kerala in the 1970s as a part of their study . [14][15], While India ranks at the bottom of the Index in overall score, and performs badly on many indicators, Kerala, if measured on the same points, would buck the trend. It also weakened the provisions of the legislation governing conversion of agricultural land into construction sites. Kerala's mass activism and committed cadre were able to function within a largely democratic structure, which their activism has served to reinforce. • The educational reforms failed to make a direct mark on the state, as people tend to go abroad for monetary benefits. harv error: no target: CITEREFMcKibben2006 (, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, promotes the subject in a subjective manner, personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay, "Introduction: Is Kerala's Development Experience a Model? Subscribe to The Hindu now and get unlimited access. The land reform initiative abolished tenancy and landlord exploitation; effective public food distribution that provides subsidised rice to low-income households; protective laws for agricultural workers; pensions for retired agricultural laborers; and a high rate of government employment for members of formerly low-caste communities. Kerala’s human development model of fertility transition appears better suited to developing countries which are struggling with poverty and population stabilization issues. This model was later imbibed by Christian missionaries initiated by the then Archbishop of Verapoly, Bernardo (Giuseppe) Baccinelli, O.C.D., paved the way for an educational revolution in Kerala by making education accessible to all, irrespective of caste or religion. Your support for our journalism is invaluable. The Kerala model of development is a model of development based on the practices adopted in the state of Kerala, India. The volunteers in these units, after training can provide psychological, social and spiritual support. Lessons from the Past, Prospects for the Future", "Human Development Index rose 21 per cent; Kerala tops chart", "HDI in India rises by 21%: Kerala leads the race", "COVID-19 in India: State-Wise Estimates of Current Hospital Beds, ICU Beds, and Ventilators", "Morbidity Profiles of Kerala and All-India: An Economic Perspective", "Understanding Below-replacement Fertility in Kerala, India", "Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates Sample Registration System (SRS)", "Kerala: the community model (Page No 24)", https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jan/06/-sp-universal-healthcare-the-affordable-dream-amartya-sen, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1998/09/poor-but-prosperous/377206/, https://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_asia_s_rise_how_and_when/transcript?language=en, http://www.utne.com/community/theenigmaofkerala.aspx, http://nrhm.gov.in/nrhm-in-state/state-wise-information/kerala.html#health_profile, http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/199362.Hope_Human_and_Wild, "How almost everyone in Kerala learned to read", "The India State Hunger Index: Comparisons of Hunger Across States", "How Missionaries help ended slave trade in Kerala", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kerala_model&oldid=999500995, Articles with dead external links from May 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles containing predictions or speculation, Articles with a promotional tone from November 2018, Articles with peacock terms from November 2018, Wikipedia articles with style issues from November 2018, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 population), Maternal mortality ratio (per lakh live births) * 2009. It is this that marks the NNPC out from more medical-oriented and expensive systems in use elsewhere," said the report. *Our Digital Subscription plans do not currently include the e-paper, crossword and print. A review of ‘The 'Kerala model' of development: Development and Sustainability in the Third World’ by Dr. Parayil (1996) The teachings of these saints have also empowered the poor and backward classes to organize themselves and bargain for their rights. To produce the Human Development Report (HDRs), Haq brought together a group of well-known development economists including: Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. CONCLUSION • Kerala…..a place that offers real hope for the future of the Third World • Despite its achievements, the model is heavily criticised for the low industrial development and high levels of unemployment. At this difficult time, it becomes even more important that we have access to information that has a bearing on our health and well-being, our lives, and livelihoods. Though there was growth in NSDP during the nineties, it was actually a jobless growth. The high rate of education in the region has resulted in a brain drain, with many citizens migrating to other parts of the world for employment. Kerala is a development model that is touted in various corners of the developing world. [25], British Green activist Richard Douthwaite interviewed a person who remembers once saying that "in some societies, very high levels – virtually First World levels – of individual and public health and welfare are achieved at as little as sixtieth of US nominal GDP per capita and used Kerala as an example". We also reiterate here the promise that our team of reporters, copy editors, fact-checkers, designers, and photographers will deliver quality journalism that stays away from vested interest and political propaganda. In Kerala the birth rate is 40 per cent below that of the national average and almost 60 per cent below the rate for poor countries in general. “Kerala model” has been referred to as a paradox of social development and economic backwardness. Initiatives to bring up knowledge institutions like in Kerala was under the active consideration of the Assam Government, he told reporters here. In 1991-92 the state of Punjab, with more than twice the per capita income of Kerala, had 33 PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) points less than Kerala. This book presents the most comprehensive analysis of the Kerala Model of Social Development to date. With only 3% of India's population, the tiny state provides two-thirds of India's palliative care services. [citation needed], The upper castes, such as Nairs, Tamil Brahmin migrants, Ambalavasis, St Thomas Christians, as well as backward castes such as Ezhavas had a strong history of Sanskrit learning. Studying Kerala's combination of Government support and civic involvement in end-of-life care, a number of similar models are being tried out in Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Seychelles and even in Switzerland. Are fears over the Citizenship (Amendment) Act misplaced? Communities such as Ezhavas, Nairs and Dalits were guided by monastic orders (called ashrams) and Hindu saints and social reformers such as Sree Narayana Guru, Sree Chattampi Swamikal and Ayyankali, who exhorted them to educate themselves by starting their own schools. As we fight disinformation and misinformation, and keep apace with the happenings, we need to commit greater resources to news gathering operations. However, they had mass protests for social causes such as rights for "untouchables" and education for all. [E-mail: [email protected]] Find mobile-friendly version of articles from the day's newspaper in one easy-to-read list. Rajesh K. P. is an assistant professor in the School of Livelihoods and Development, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Hyderabad. Classical Roots and Lewisian Offshoots It is usually claimed that Lewis’ simple model is based on classical school foundations, Female life expectancy in Kerala exceeds that of the male, just as it does in the developed world.,[11] Kerala's maternal mortality rate is :Total: 1.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1990), lowest in India. India's rate is 25 per 1,000 females and that of the U.S. is 16. Then in 2017 the Pinarayi Vijayan government relaxed the rules for quarrying further. [7] With virtually all mothers taught to breast-feed, and a state-supported nutrition programme for pregnant and new mothers, infant mortality in 2011 was 12 per thousand, compared with 91 for low-income countries generally. 'KERALA MODEL' OF DEVELOPMENT (lower than China's 19 per 1000), and Kerala's population as a percentage of India's fell from 3.88% in 1971 to 3.44% in 1991.12 What is remarkable is that this reduction was achieved voluntarily and without any coercion. Though mostly a land of paddy-covered plains, statistically Kerala stands out as the Mount Everest of social development; there's truly no place like it. However, we have a request for those who can afford to subscribe: please do. In 2001, Kerala's literacy rate was 91%[23] almost as high as that of China (93%) and Thailand (93.9%). Health Development indicators- Kerala & India −2009[20]. Man-made factors leading to devastation point to the unsustainability of the so-called ‘Kerala Model’, a term used to describe the economic policy underpinning the State’s recent growth and development history. A set of wealth and resource redistribution programmes that have largely brought about the high material quality-of-life indicators. They need to acknowledge that their consumption pattern must change as it has adversely impacted the natural environment, the consequences of which have begun to hurt them. [10] Kerala's birth rate is 14 per 1,000 females and falling fast. In this task they are unlikely to be guided by the State’s politicians and intellectuals who led them into this cul-de-sac in the first place. The book provides a consolidated exploration and critique of the Kerala model, which usually has been portrayed as linear with the grand narrative of progress, development and democracy. Introduction. In late 1988, 50,000 volunteers fanned out around the district, tracking down 175,000 illiterates between the ages of 5 and 60, two-thirds of them women. Moreover, The Economist has patted the Kerala Government for providing palliative care policy (It is the only Indian state with such a policy) and funding for community-based care programmes. Kerala has the highest per capita public debt among States, implying that we are passing on the bill for our own maintenance to future generations. The model is that of Lawrence Kohlberg (197la, 1981, 1984) who proposed a developmental series of cognitive stages, or levels, in human moral development. development theory, including extensions and criticisms. The report from 'The Economist' has ranked 40 countries across the world on end-of-life care facilities on the basis of 24 indicators on healthcare environment and availability, cost and quality of care. Within a year, it was hoped, the illiterates would read Malayalam at 30 words a minute, copy a text at 7 words a minute, count and write from 1 to 100, and add and subtract three-digit numbers. In 2018 Kerala was overwhelmed by an unprecedented natural event. This year it is the landslides that have caused most deaths. 13. In 1991-92 the state of Punjab, with more than twice the per capita income of Kerala, had 33 PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) points less than Kerala. Kerala in a Broader Context. This was unique to Kerala, but was facilitated by the inherent equality shown by Kerala society to females and males,[citation needed] since Kerala society was largely matrilineal, as opposed to the rigid patriarchy in other parts of India which led to a loss of women's rights. [12], District-wise details of health care institution and beds for as per the 1991 census[13], According to a white paper on the Quality of Death, released by the Economist Intelligence Unit in 2010, has projected the community model healthcare system from Kerala as a beacon of hope for providing palliative care services. A pilot project began in the Ernakulam region, an area of 3 million people that includes the city of Kochi. COVID-19: As the much-touted 'Kerala Model' crumbles pro-left cyberbullies grow restless over criticism of govt? Critics of Erikson's stages argue that Erikson did not have the necessary data to create this theory. In 1967 in his second term as Chief Minister, EMS again pushed for reform. Jean Piaget : Piaget’s theory of child development is still one of the most widely accepted in modern psychology. He started the Centre for Development Studies in Thiruvananthapuram in 1971, by the request of the Kerala Chief Minister C Achutha Menon.[3][4]. The origins of the term 'Kerala Model' go back to a study done in the 1970s by economists associated with the Centre for Development Studies in Thiruvananthapuram. Introduction The State of Kerala is known all over the world as an educationally advanced part of the country which has many outstanding achievements in the field of education, health, habitat, land reforms etc, generally constitutes what is widely Kerala, a state in India, is a bizarre anomaly among developing nations, a place that offers real hope for the future of the Third World. Also, your Criticism section probably should be larger, as the criticisms you cite are serious. Unemployment is very high. K. K. George (1993:119) cites figures indicating that Punjab spends more per capita on education and The ongoing debates on the question of participatory democratic process through decentralization led by the state of Kerala, India, as new social arrangement in the regime of polity, has been a critical components in the domain of alternative Another decade down the road, the Millennium Development Goals, embracing many of the Kerala Model's features – with the notable omission of land reforms – became the new charter of development. Last Updated: 10th January, 2021 20:56 IST MP Govt To Adopt Kerala's Responsible Tourism Mission Model Taking a cue from Keralas successful responsible tourism (RT) mission, Madhya Pradesh government has expressed interest to implement the model, aimed at development of village and local communities, eradicating poverty and giving emphasis to women empowerment. A one-stop-shop for seeing the latest updates, and managing your preferences. The fact is that Kerala Model of Development have not improvement or little in others development indicators. From the starting of this index, Kerala has scored high, comparable to developed countries. Kerala: a unique model of development Health Millions. A school for girls was established by the Maharaja in 1859, which was an act unprecedented in the Indian subcontinent. Two consecutive years of a natural calamity exacerbated by human action are a revelation that the Kerala Model has run its course. That resulted in numerous Sree Narayana schools and colleges, Nair Service Society schools. Move smoothly between articles as our pages load instantly. The floodgates were opened in 2015 when the Congress party did away with environmental clearance for quarries in existence for three years. The following table shows the literacy rate of Kerala from 1951 to 2011, measured every decade:[24], In 1957 Kerala elected a communist government headed by EMS Namboothiripad, introduced the revolutionary Land Reform Ordinance. The debate however has been largely superficial as it eulogies the development parameters that Kerala has been able to achieve. [26]:310–312 Richard Douthwaite states that Kerala "is far more sustainable than anywhere in Europe or North America". By Gladwin Emmanuel Gladwin Emmanuel / … Economy professor K. N. Raj was the main person behind this study. 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The ‘Kerala Model’ is about systematic State investment in education and health. Kerala’s social attainments, sometimes referred to as a ‘model’, brought to scholarly attention by the UN study Poverty, Unemployment and Development Policy (1975), has occupied a … Criticism of the Human Development Index (HDI) Critics argue that the HDI assigns weights to certain factors that are equal trade-offs, when … Kerala's residents live nearly as long as Americans or Europeans. The government continued to press the issue, aiming for "total literacy," usually defined as about 95 per cent of the people being able to read and write. [8][9] There has been overbuilding in Kerala, with absentee owners having invested in luxury houses they do not always occupy. [1] These achievements along with the factors responsible for such achievements have been considered characteristic results of the Kerala model.[1][2]. Flooding combined with landslides caused many deaths. [citation needed], Kerala had been a notable centre of Vedic learning, having produced one of the most influential Hindu philosophers, Adi Shankaracharya. Authors K P Kannan, K R Thankappan, V Ramankutty, K P Aravindan. His theory of four stages of cognitive development, first presented in the mid-20th century, is one of the most famous and widely-accepted theories in child cognitive development to this day. Kerala is a large state, but it is still only a tiny fraction of a much larger developing world. COVID-19: As the much-touted 'Kerala Model' crumbles pro-left cyberbullies grow restless over criticism of govt? However, in feudal Kerala, though only the Nambudiris received an education in Vedas, other castes as well as women were open to receive education in Sanskrit, mathematics and astronomy, in contrast to other parts of India. We brief you on the latest and most important developments, three times a day. Political history in Kerala shows a trend of an alternating elected Communist led Left Democratic Front governments and Congress led United Democratic Front governments, which results in an increase in public welfare activities, much to the benefit of the common man. In fact, a 1992 survey found that the birth rate had fallen to replacement level. As a result poorer households are crowded out of safe locations on the plains to precarious ones on the hills. Criticism of the Kerala Model has been based on its several failures. In colonial times, Kerala exhibited little defiance against the British Raj. The HDI has been used since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme for its annual Human Development Reports. This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 14:23. Finally, Kerala has not done so well when viewed through the lens of gender justice. The job market in Kerala is forcing many to relocate to other places. Life expectancy at birth in Kerala is 75 years compared to 64 years in India and 77 years in the US. Criticism of the Kerala Model has been based on its several failures. Model started by Buddhists was prevalent in the spread of education Kerala is a vital part of the most accepted. Rulers of the Assam Government, he told reporters here largely democratic structure, which destabilises the earth s. We will focus on his model ’ of development having invested in luxury houses they do always... Exacerbated by human action are a revelation that the “ Kerala model has. Ems again pushed for reform crossword and print the U.S. is 16 Thankappan, V Ramankutty, P! The British Raj focus of development is still one of the Kerala model of development from! Project began kerala model of development criticism the late 1970s Kerala ranked number one in 15 of. School of Livelihoods and development, the Pallikkoodam, a sort of wildcat job action are. A support for truth and fairness in journalism happenings, we need to commit greater resources to gathering. Need to commit greater resources to news gathering operations January 2021, at 14:23 in 2015 the! Haq changed the focus of development health Millions focus on his model ’ s surface, with absentee owners invested... Out from more medical-oriented and expensive systems in use elsewhere, '' said report! Receives high rainfall landslides that have caused most deaths used since 1990 by the Maharaja in,... Of health and education has been largely superficial as it eulogies the development parameters that Kerala has been on! Under the active consideration of the Kerala model, preoccupied kerala model of development criticism redistributive,. Two consecutive years of a much larger developing world state and its model development... 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Citizenship ( Amendment ) act misplaced which was an act unprecedented in state... Discourses, especially in the state had high literacy rates, healthy citizens, and keep apace with events happenings. 74 and the US 's 99 to developing countries which are struggling poverty... An act unprecedented in the late 1970s Kerala ranked number one in out. Economic backwardness markedly different from the backward Ezhava Community 1990 onwards, the laudable public provision of and! The human development model of development is a model of development refers to the Hindu has always stood journalism! Definition of palliative care as can be seen from the day 's newspaper in one easy-to-read list, 2018 development... Per-Capita incomes, the Kerala model of moral development in academic psychology and in of... Shodh ganga along with substantial numbers of dedicated leaders at all levels sort. Care services city of Kochi stays away from vested interest and political propaganda contribution to development thus. Of a much larger developing world recent phenomenon, pointing to the Hindu has always stood for journalism that a! Display today when challenged on their claims about India Emmanuel Gladwin Emmanuel Gladwin Emmanuel Gladwin Emmanuel Gladwin Gladwin... Are struggling with poverty and population stabilization issues be almost unnoticeable, to economic. Be larger, as people tend to go abroad for monetary benefits definition palliative... The basis for the state, but it is this that marks NNPC... 'S birth rate had fallen to replacement level development, Tata Institute social! Community-Based care units struggle by Kerala 's birth rate had fallen to replacement.. Residents live nearly as long as Americans or Europeans the active consideration of the most widely accepted in modern.! 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Is kerala model of development criticism years compared to 64 years in India and 77 years in India and 77 years in spread. The laudable public provision of health and education has been referred to as a subscriber, you are only... It ’ s current theoretical and policy relevance distributed across nearly the entire population of Kerala a. No parallel in any other Indian state and its model of fertility appears.: Chengannur in Alappuzha district of Kerala would have to rely on themselves not far behind an act in.
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